HIDE

Other Publications

Insights

Publications

Israeli C.F.C. Rules Apply to Foreign Real Estate Companies Controlled by Israeli Shareholders

Israeli C.F.C. Rules Apply to Foreign Real Estate Companies Controlled by Israeli Shareholders

Controlled foreign corporation (“C.F.C.”) laws are all the rage with parliaments around the world. Israel is no exception. Israeli shareholders controlling offshore companies that derive low-tax passive income and gains can be taxed in Israel even though no dividend is received. A recent decision by the Israeli Supreme Court addresses a fundamental question in this area. Is passive income determined on a groupwide basis or on a company-by-company basis? The answer affects Israeli residents owning a chain of C.F.C.’s when an intermediary company in the chain sells shares of an operating subsidiary. Daniel Paserman, who leads the tax group at Gornitzky & Co., Tel-Aviv, explains the holding in Tax Assessor for Large Enterprises v. Rosebud. Israeli residents may not like the answer.

Read More

Preferred Yet Neglected — A Plea for Guidance on Redemptions of C.F.C. Preferred Stock in the Wake of U.S. Tax Reform

Preferred Yet Neglected — A Plea for Guidance on Redemptions of C.F.C. Preferred Stock in the Wake of U.S. Tax Reform

Most tax advisers in the U.S. view Code §1248 as a supporting part of U.S. C.F.C. rules. Under the provision, capital gain derived by a 10% shareholder of a C.F.C. from the sale or disposition of shares of the C.F.C. may be converted into dividend income to the extent of some or all of the accumulated earnings of the C.F.C. Prior to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, Code §1248 applied to all 10% U.S. Shareholders of a C.F.C. However, that is no longer the case. Whether the delinking was intentional is not clear. What is clear is that some U.S. Shareholders are not subject to Code §1248, and the tax consequences may be sub-optimal for the U.S. Shareholder. Neha Rastogi, Andreas A. Apostolides, and Stanley C. Ruchelman explain the pitfalls that may occur.

Read More

Is the 100% Dividend Received Deduction Under Code §245A About as Useful as a Chocolate Teapot?

Is the 100% Dividend Received Deduction Under Code §245A About as Useful as a Chocolate Teapot?

Remember when Code §1248 was intended to right an economic wrong by converting low-taxed capital gain to highly-taxed dividend income? (If you do, you probably remember the maximum tax on earned income (50% rather than 70%) and income averaging over three years designed to eliminate the effect of spiked income in a particular year.) Tax law has changed, and dividend income no longer is taxed at high rates. Indeed, for C-corporations receiving foreign-source dividends from certain 10%-owned corporations, there is no tax whatsoever. This is a much better tax result than that extended to capital gains, which are taxed at 21% for corporations. Neha Rastogi and Stanley C. Ruchelman evaluate whether the conversion of capital gains into dividend income produces a meaningful benefit in many instances, given the likelihood of prior taxation under Subpart F or G.I.L.T.I. rules for the U.S. parent of a multinational group. Hence the question, is the conversion of taxable capital gains into dividend income under Code §1248 a real benefit, or is it simply a glistening

Read More

Peeling the Onion to Allocate Subpart F Income – This Will Make You Cry!

Peeling the Onion to Allocate Subpart F Income – This Will Make You Cry!

When Congress expanded the definition of a “U.S. Shareholder” in the T.C.J.A. by requiring the measurement of value as an alternative to voting power, it opened a Pandora’s box of issues.  First, more U.S. Persons became U.S. Shareholders.  Second, it imposed a difficult task for shareholders and corporations to measure relative value of all classes of shares and all holdings of shareholders.  Finally, many plans based on the existence of direct or direct or indirect dividend rights of foreign shareholders were shut down. Proposed regulations will modify the way Subpart F Income is allocated to various classes of shares having discretionary dividend rights. Neha Rastogi and Stanley C. Ruchelman explain the broadened scope of income inclusions under Subpart F.

Read More

A Deep Dive into G.I.L.T.I. Guidance

A Deep Dive into G.I.L.T.I. Guidance

The I.R.S. has published proposed regulations on the global intangible low-taxed income ("G.I.L.T.I.") regime, which is applicable to those controlled foreign corporations that manage to operate globally without generating effectively connected income taxable to the foreign corporation or Subpart F Income taxable to its U.S. Shareholders. In a detailed article, Rusudan Shervashidze, Elizabeth V. Zanet, and Stanley C. Ruchelman examine the proposed regulations and all their complexity.

Read More

A New Tax Regime for CFCs: Who Is GILTI?

Published by the Civil Research Institute in the Journal of Taxation and Regulation of Financial Institutions, vol. 31, no. 03 (Spring 2018): pp. 17-28.

Read More

Coming to the U.S. After Tax Reform

Coming to the U.S. After Tax Reform

Now, more than six months after enactment of the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act, many tax advisers have achieved a level of comfort with the brave new world of Transition Tax, F.D.I.I., G.I.L.T.I., B.E.A.T., and incredibly low corporate tax rates. However, sleeper provisions in the new law can have drastic adverse tax consequences in the realm of cross-border transactions and investments: (i) the threshold for becoming a C.F.C. has been reduced significantly by several changes in U.S. tax law and (ii) the 10.5% tax rate for G.I.L.T.I. is limited to corporations so that individuals face ordinary income treatment for G.I.L.T.I. inclusions from foreign corporations that were not C.F.C’s. prior to the new law. Jeanne Goulet of Byrum River Consulting L.L.C., New York, addresses these problems and suggests several planning opportunities.

Read More

Code §962 Election Offers Benefits Under U.S. Tax Reform

Code §962 Election Offers Benefits Under U.S. Tax Reform

Two provisions in the recent tax reform legislation – Code §§965 (transition tax) and 250 (50% deduction for G.I.L.T.I.) – focus on C.F.C.’s and their U.S. Shareholders.  In each case, corporate U.S. Shareholders are entitled to a deduction that is not granted to an individual with regard to income that is taxed under Subpart F.  However, Code §962 may allow an individual who is a U.S. Shareholder of a C.F.C. to elect to be taxed on the Subpart F Income as if a corporation.  This allows for tax at a lower rate and a foreign tax credit for corporate income taxes paid by the C.F.C.  Elizabeth V. Zanet and Galia Antebi explain the workings of Code §962 and focus on the position of naysayers who caution that it may not provide the relief it appears to provide.

Read More

I.R.S. Offers Additional Guidance on Code §965 Transition Tax

I.R.S. Offers Additional Guidance on Code §965 Transition Tax

On the way toward a dividends received deduction for certain dividends paid by foreign subsidiaries, Congress enacted a one-shot income inclusion of all post-1986 earnings from C.F.C.’s and foreign corporations having 10% U.S. Shareholders that are corporations.  In March, the I.R.S. issued an F.A.Q. providing additional guidance on open issues for 2017 tax returns.  Rusudan Shervashidze and Stanley C. Ruchelman explain the mechanics of the income inclusion and an election to defer payments for eight years, sometimes more.

Read More

Changes to C.F.C. Rules – More C.F.C.’s, More U.S. Shareholders, More Attribution, More Compliance

Changes to C.F.C. Rules – More C.F.C.’s, More U.S. Shareholders, More Attribution, More Compliance

T.C.J.A. changes to the Subpart F rules have the effect of deconstructing cross-border arrangements structured to prevent the creation of a C.F.C.  A change to constructive ownership rules may cause all foreign members of a foreign-based group to be treated as C.F.C.’s for certain reporting purposes merely because the group includes a member in the U.S.  A change to the definition of a U.S. Shareholder of a C.F.C. makes the value of shares owned as important as voting power in determining whether a U.S. person is a U.S. Shareholder and a foreign corporation is a C.F.C.  The 30-day requirement for a C.F.C. to be owned by a U.S. Shareholder before Subpart F applies has been eliminated.  In some instances, the changes are retroactive to the 2017 tax year.  Neha Rastogi, Sheryl Shah, Beate Erwin, and Elizabeth V. Zanet explain and provide a case study that ties everything together

Read More

US Tax Reforms - Anti-Abuse Regime for CFCs

Published on Out-law.com (March 2018).

Read More

A New Tax Regime for C.F.C.’s: Who Is G.I.L.T.I.?

A New Tax Regime for C.F.C.’s: Who Is G.I.L.T.I.?

The T.C.J.A. introduces a new minimum tax regime applicable to controlled foreign corporations (“C.F.C.’s”).  It also provides tax benefits for incomefrom “intangibles” used to exploit foreign markets.  The former is known as G.I.L.T.I. and the latter is known as F.D.I.I.  Together, G.I.L.T.I. and F.D.I.I. change the dynamics of cross-border taxation and can be seen as an incentive to supply foreign markets with goods and services produced in the U.S.  Both provisions reflect a view that only two value drivers exist in business: (i) hard assets (such as property, plant, and equipment) and (ii) intangible property.  In a detailed set of Q&A’s, Elizabeth V. Zanet and Stanley C. Ruchelman look at the ins and outs of the new provisions.

Read More

When Does an Aged Account Receivable Give Rise to a Deemed Repatriation?

When Does an Aged Account Receivable Give Rise to a Deemed Repatriation?

One form of taxation under Subpart F is an “investment in U.S. Property.”  The law treats the investment as a form of taxable repatriation of earnings.  Under certain circumstances, aged accounts receivable may be seen as a form of taxable investment in U.S. property.  Most U.S. tax advisers look to a 60-day rule under which the account receivable is treated as a loan if not settled by the last day of the second month following a sale.  However, that is a safe harbor.  I.R.S. private letter rulings and Tax Court cases have addressed fact patterns in which the account receivable remains open for a much longer time.  Some taxpayers win and others lose.  Elizabeth V. Zanet and Stanley C. Ruchelman explain.

Read More

Good News for REITs Investing in Non-US Real Estate

Good News for REITs Investing in Non-US Real Estate

Published in the GGi Insider, No. 88, March 2017 (p. 44).

Read More

I.R.S. Rules Subpart F & P.F.I.C. Income Inclusions Are R.E.I.T. Qualifying Income

I.R.S. Rules Subpart F & P.F.I.C. Income Inclusions Are R.E.I.T. Qualifying Income

A R.E.I.T. is a tax-favorable investment entity used for investment in real estate and real estate mortgages.  R.E.I.T.’s that invest in non-U.S. real estate often make such investments through foreign corporate entities that may be classified as C.F.C.’s or P.F.I.C.’s.  Qualification as a R.E.I.T. requires the entity to meet certain income and passive asset tests designed to ensure that a R.E.I.T.’s gross income is largely composed of passive income related to real estate or real estate mortgage investments.  In a recent private letter ruling, income from a R.E.I.T.’s ownership of C.F.C.’s and P.F.I.C.’s was determined to be passive investment income, thereby providing favorable treatment for the R.E.I.T.  Elizabeth V. Zanet and Philip R. Hirschfeld explain the R.E.I.T. rules and the private letter ruling.

Read More

Transfer Pricing Adjustment Does Not Reduce Dividend Received Deduction from C.F.C.

When the I.R.S. successfully maintains an adjustment to transfer pricing within an intercompany group, taxable income is increased to one participant but cash remains at the level that existed at year-end prior to the I.R.S. adjustment.  To avoid a second tax adjustment, the party with excessive cash – as determined after the I.R.S. adjustment – may be treated as if it incurred an account payable, which can be repaid free of additional tax.  In Analog Devices, the I.R.S. attempted to argue that the account payable of the C.F.C. should be treated as an actual borrowing.  The effect of an actual borrowing limited the favorable tax treatment under Code §965.  That provision temporarily allowed an 85% dividends received deduction for a U.S. corporation receiving a dividend from a controlled foreign corporation.  The Tax Court disagreed with the I.R.S. position. Kenneth Lobo and Beate Erwin explain.

Read More

New U.S. Model Treaty

Published by GGi in FYI International Taxation News, No. 5: Autumn 2016.

Read More

Contract Manufacturing in a US-Controlled Group

First published by the Canadian Tax Foundation in (2016) 24:7 Canadian Tax Highlights.

Read More

Insights Vol. 3 No. 6: B.E.P.S. Around the World

Insights Vol. 3 No. 6: B.E.P.S. Around the World

This month, we review steps toward implementation of anti-B.E.P.S. provisions in various countries and the E.U.  Kenneth Lobo and Nina Krauthamer look at the latest items, including French tax raids on local offices of U.S. companies, disagreement with the E.U. over the adoption of blacklists and the tax treatment of C.F.C.’s, and pushback against proposed Code §385 regulations that deal with debt and equity.

Read More

Required Taxable Inclusions from the Loss of §1248 Shareholder Status

Rusudan Shervashidze and Andrew P. Mitchel continue their examination of U.S. tax rules applicable to cross-border reorganizations, formations, and liquidations.  This month, they review the rules embodied in Code §1248, a provision that converts capital gain from the sale of shares in a C.F.C. into dividend income for certain shareholders.  Although for individuals, the tax rates for qualified dividends and gains are the same, the source of the income is changed in a way that may allow a benefit for unused foreign taxes.  If the dividend is not qualified, tax is imposed at a much greater rate.  For corporations that are shareholders, dividend income may bring along indirect foreign tax credits.  Code §1248 also defines the extent of a toll charge if a foreign corporation undergoes a tax-free reorganization that eliminates C.F.C. status.

Read More