Other Publications



The Devil in the Detail: Choosing a U.S. Business Structure Post-Tax Reform

The Devil in the Detail: Choosing a U.S. Business Structure Post-Tax Reform

Prior to the T.C.J.A. in 2017, the higher corporate income tax rate made it much easier to decide whether to operate in the U.S. market through a corporate entity or a pass-thru entity. With a Federal corporate income tax rate of up to 35%, a Federal qualified dividend rate of up to 20%, and a Federal net investment income tax on the distribution of 3.8%, the effective post-distribution tax rate was 50.47%, before taking into account State and local taxes. With the post-tax reform corporate income tax rate of 21% and the introduction of the qualified business income and foreign derived intangible income deductions, the decision to choose a pass-thru entity is no longer apparent. In their article, Fanny Karaman and Nina Krauthamer look into some important tax considerations when choosing the entity for a start-up business in the U.S.

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Corporate Matters: Anatomy of a Limited Liability Company Agreement – Part I

Simon H. Prisk and Nina Krauthamer begin a series on the reasons why a carefully crafted L.L.C. agreement is important in a joint venture.  Commonly referred to as an operating agreement, this governance tool addresses the purpose, management, and overall operation of an L.L.C. and the obligations of members to make capital contributions.

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Corporate Matters: Directors and Officers Insurance

Many of our clients instruct us from outside the United States to establish companies through which an acquisition or some other transaction will be conducted. After completing our “know your client” obligations for a matter involving a new client, the home country advisors instruct us to form the entity and open a bank account. This month, Simon Prisk looks at directors and officers insurance policies designed to protect incumbents from liability claims based on a failure to supervise the actions of a company. He cautions management to be wary of coverage gaps when comparing policies and costs.

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Corporate Matters: Professional Limited Liability Companies and Professional Corporations

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In our March issue we discussed incorporation basics and entity selection. We focused on limited liability companies and corporations, as they are the most common entities used. We thought it might be helpful to follow up on that article with a brief discussion on professional limited liability companies and professional corporations.


A professional limited liability company (“P.L.L.C.”) is organized for the sole purpose of providing professional services by licensed professionals. Generally, states don’t allow L.L.C.’s for businesses where a license is required. Licensed professionals who want the benefits of an L.L.C. must form a P.L.L.C. instead. A P.L.L.C. must be organized solely for the purpose of engaging in either a single licensed profession, or in two or more that can be lawfully practiced together. The name of the business must include the words “professional limited liability company,” or the abbreviation “P.L.L.C.” Generally, any person who is licensed to practice in a state under a designated profession may organize a P.L.L.C. A professional is a person licensed in a field such as health, law, engineering, architecture, accounting, actuarial science, or another similar field. However, licensing requirements may vary state by state. Therefore, one must thoroughly review the applicable statute for the state in which the P.L.L.C. will conduct business.

A professional or group of professionals considering incorporation would consider a P.L.L.C. for the favorable pass-through tax treatment and limited liability – a member of a P.L.L.C. is not liable for acts of another member or the entity’s debts. Note, however, that members remain personally liable for their own professional misconduct or malpractice. So, even if you practice a profession through a P.L.L.C., it is a good idea to carry malpractice insurance.