HIDE

Other Publications

Insights

Publications

The Devil in the Detail: Choosing a U.S. Business Structure Post-Tax Reform

The Devil in the Detail: Choosing a U.S. Business Structure Post-Tax Reform

Prior to the T.C.J.A. in 2017, the higher corporate income tax rate made it much easier to decide whether to operate in the U.S. market through a corporate entity or a pass-thru entity. With a Federal corporate income tax rate of up to 35%, a Federal qualified dividend rate of up to 20%, and a Federal net investment income tax on the distribution of 3.8%, the effective post-distribution tax rate was 50.47%, before taking into account State and local taxes. With the post-tax reform corporate income tax rate of 21% and the introduction of the qualified business income and foreign derived intangible income deductions, the decision to choose a pass-thru entity is no longer apparent. In their article, Fanny Karaman and Nina Krauthamer look into some important tax considerations when choosing the entity for a start-up business in the U.S.

Read More

Grecian Magnesite Put to Bed: Tax Court Ruling Affirmed on Appeal

Grecian Magnesite Put to Bed: Tax Court Ruling Affirmed on Appeal

The battle is over. It is agreed that the emporer’s new clothes are made of fairy dust, and Rev. Rul. 91-32 is not worth the paper on which it was printed in the I.R.S. Cumulative Bulletin for 1991. In June, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit affirmed the 2017 Tax Court ruling in the matter of Grecian Magnesite Mining v. Commr., which held that a foreign corporation was not liable for U.S. tax on the gain arising from a redemption of its membership interest in a U.S. L.L.C. treated as a partnership. In their article, Galia Antebi and Stanley C. Ruchelman address the history of the I.R.S. position and the disdain given to it by the courts. However, they caution that the taxpayer victory applies only to sales, exchanges, and dispositions effected through November 26, 2017. Thereafter, new Code §864(c)(8) modifies the law by adopting a look-thru rule when determining the character of gain from the sale of a membership interest. Win some, lose some.

Read More

Missed Opportunities – Tax Court Shows No Mercy for Indirect Partner

Missed Opportunities – Tax Court Shows No Mercy for Indirect Partner

In the U.S., there are several options to challenge an I.R.S. adjustment in the courts, including the U.S. District Court, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, and the U.S. Tax Court.  Of the three options, only a challenge in the Tax Court can be pursued without first paying the tax.  Strict time limits are placed on filing a petition to the Tax Court.  If a taxpayer misses the deadline, it must first pay the tax and then sue for refund in either of the other courts.  The petition deadline is easy to determine when the I.R.S. proposes an adjustment to an individual or corporation, but when the adjustment is made to the income of a partnership – which yields tax exposure for partners – it is not always clear when the time limit has run out.  In a recent memorandum decision, the Tax Court ruled that an indirect partner was not able to challenge the tax liability of a partnership because the petition came too late.  In their review of the decision, Rusudan Shervashidze and Nina Krauthamer explain the strange facts involved and point out that the taxpayer did not have “clean hands.”

Read More

Proposed Code §864(c)(8) Regulations Codify Tax on Gain from Sale of Partnership Interest

Proposed Code §864(c)(8) Regulations Codify Tax on Gain from Sale of Partnership Interest

Enacted as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Code§864(c)(8) codifies the holding in Rev. Rul. 91-32 and overturns the result ofthe Grecian Magnesite case. In late December 2018, the I.R.S. released pro- posed regulations containing guidance under new Code §864(c)(8). Among the points addressed in the proposed regulations are (i) rules to compute the amount of E.C.I. gain or loss, (ii) coordination with F.I.R.P.T.A. tax and withholding, (iii) interaction with income tax treaties, and (iv) anti-abuse rules. Fanny Karaman and Nina Krauthamer discuss these and other aspects of the proposed regulations.

Read More

Corporate Matters: Profits Interest Basics

Corporate Matters: Profits Interest Basics

In the latest in his series of articles on the relative flexibility of limited liability companies and their desirability for use in many instances, including joint ventures, Simon H. Prisk looks at grants of profits interests as a means of compensating service providers and employees.  If done properly, these incentives can be optimized by favorable tax treatment, achieving the same or better tax results than incentive stock options available to C-corporations and S-corporations.  If done without proper thought and planning, the results may be suboptimal.  

Read More