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Hybrid Mismatches: Where U.S. Tax Law and A.T.A.D. Meet

Hybrid Mismatches: Where U.S. Tax Law and A.T.A.D. Meet

When U.S. tax planners attend foreign conferences, it is not uncommon to hear pointed barbs that the U.S. is an outlier when it comes to rules enforcing “best practices” on global business transactions. However, when it comes to reverse hybrids and hybrid mismatches, the rules are not all that different on both sides of the Atlantic. Fanny Karaman and Beate Erwin compare approaches taken by ATAD 2 with U.S. tax law after the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

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Blockchain 101

Blockchain 101

Blockchain has been in the spotlight since early 2017, mostly due to the 2017 surge in cryptocurrency values and the rise of initial coin offerings (“I.C.O.’s”). Many legal advisors have clients who use or wish to use blockchain in their businesses, and yet, the actual technology is often not discussed in the legal field. In a series of Q&A’s, Fanny Karaman and Galia Antebi explain the rationale behind blockchain technology and reasons for its reliability. Because blockchain is a decentralized system with inherent proof of work built into the program, it can eliminate the need for intermediaries, such as banks, lawyers, and brokers. Advisers should be aware of the benefits of the technology, as well as its potential for disrupting the legal landscape.

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Foreign Investor in a U.S. L.L.C. – How to Minimize Withholding Tax on Sale of L.L.C. Interest

Foreign Investor in a U.S. L.L.C. – How to Minimize Withholding Tax on Sale of L.L.C. Interest

U.S. tax law was revised in last year’s tax reform legislation to impose tax on non-U.S. persons recognizing a gain from the sale of a partnership that engages in a U.S. business.  Worse, purchasers must collect and pay over to the I.R.S. a withholding tax equal to 10% of the amount realized by the seller.  Because of the way U.S. tax law treats partners of partnerships financed with debt, the withholding tax can be greater than the cash that is set to be paid to the foreign seller.  In April, the I.R.S. issued guidance on the problem, leading some to recommend a two-step plan to align the withholding tax with the ultimate income tax that will be due.  Fanny Karaman and Stanley C. Ruchelman explain the I.R.S. guidance and the two-step plan.

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G.D.P.R. Is Imminent – Is Your U.S. Business Prepared?

G.D.P.R. Is Imminent – Is Your U.S. Business Prepared?

In Europe, an individual’s right to the protection of personal data is a fundamental right.   The E.U. General Data Protection Regulation (“G.D.P.R.”) takes effect on May 25, 2018, to protect that right.  The G.D.P.R. is notable because it applies to all companies processing personal data of persons residing in the European Economic Area regardless of the company's location and irrespective of whether the company has a physical presence in these countries.  Severe penalties are provided for violators. Fanny Karaman and Beate Erwin provide a layman’s guide to the G.D.P.R.

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When "Defective" Is Desirable – Pre-Immigration Planning for Families with U.S. Persons

When "Defective" Is Desirable – Pre-Immigration Planning for Families with U.S. Persons

The term “intentionally defective” sounds problematic, but in reality, is quite favorable when it comes to estate planning.  Intentionally defective grantor trusts are an especially useful tool when combined with pre-immigration planning for a family where only one spouse is a U.S. citizen because these trusts are disregarded for income tax purposes but respected for estate tax purposes.  If set up and funded by a non-citizen spouse before arrival in the U.S., gift and estate tax planning can be achieved in a low tax environment.  In these trusts, the settlor continues to pay tax on the income even though not a beneficiary.  As a result, the beneficiary does not pay income tax on trust distributions and the tax payment by the grantor is not considered to be gift to the beneficiary.  Hence, no gift tax.  Fanny Karaman and Nina Krauthamer explain all.

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