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I.R.S. Announces Major Changes to Amnesty Programs

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The I.R.S. announced major changes to its amnesty programs last month. These changes can be broken into two parts: changes to the 2012 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (“O.V.D.P.”), which can be to referred to as the 2012 Modified O.V.D.P. or the 2014 O.V.D.P., and changes to the streamlined procedures (“Streamlined Procedures”). As the requirements for the latter are relaxed, the requirements for the former are tightened.

The changes in the amnesty programs reflect the new I.R.S. approach for addressing taxpayers with offshore tax issues. The new approach provides one path for willful taxpayers, with steeper penalties but certainty, and another path for taxpayers who believe their conduct was non-willful, with reduced penalties but uncertainty to the extent their conduct is subsequently proven willful.


The major changes to the 2012 O.V.D.P. include the following:

  1. Changes to Preclearance Process

Under the 2012 O.V.D.P., all that was required was to submit a preclearance request was a fax to the I.R.S. O.V.D.P. department that contained the taxpayer’s name, social security number, date of birth, address, and if the taxpayer was represented by an authorized party, an executed power of attorney (P.O.A.).

Insights Vol. 1 No. 5: F.A.T.C.A. 24/7

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On June 2, implementation of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“F.A.T.C.A.”) reached another milestone. On that date, the I.R.S. published its first list of foreign financial institutions (“F.F.I.’s”) that have registered with the I.R.S. to show intent to comply with F.A.T.C.A. and have received a Global Intermediary Information Number (“G.I.I.N.”) to document that compliance. The I.R.S. list is important since U.S. withholding agents who are being asked by F.F.I.’s not to remit the 30% withholding tax imposed under F.A.T.C.A. must first obtain a G.I.I.N. from the F.F.I. and then confirm on the I.R.S. published list that the G.I.I.N. is accurate and in full force.

More than 77,000 F.F.I.’s appear on this first list and include foreign affiliates of some of the U.S.'s largest financial institutions. Among those financial institutions are Bank of America, JPMorgan Chase, Merrill Lynch, and Franklin Templeton.

O.V.D.P. Update

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After more than two weeks of speculation, 49 on June 18, 2014, the I.R.S. announced major changes to its current offshore voluntary disclosure programs earlier today. The programs affected are the 2012 Streamlined Filing Compliance Procedures for Non-Resident, Non-Filer U.S. Taxpayers (the “Streamlined Procedures”) and the 2012 O.V.D.P.

In general, as will be discussed in more detail below, the changes to the programs relax the rules for non-willful filers and at the same time potentially increase penalties for willful non-compliance.

The changes to the O.V.D.P., as announced today, include the following:

  • Additional information will be required from taxpayers applying to the program;
  • The existing reduced penalty percentage for non-willful taxpayers will be eliminated;
  • All account statements, as well as payment of the offshore penalty, must be submitted at the time of the O.V.D.P. application;
  • Taxpayers will be able to submit important amounts of records electronically; and
  • The offshore penalty will be increased from 27.5% to 50% if, prior to the taxpayer’s pre-clearance submission, it becomes public that a financial institution where the taxpayer holds an account or another party facilitating the taxpayer’s offshore arrangement is under investigation by the I.R.S. or the Department of Justice.

F.B.A.R. Update: What You Need to Know

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As noted in our previous issue, the I.R.S. clarified the tax treatment of Bitcoin, ruling that Bitcoin will not be treated as foreign currency but will be treated as property for U.S. Federal income tax purposes. As a result, the I.R.S. ruling may allow for capital gains treatment on the sale of Bitcoin. However, the ruling did not address whether Bitcoin is subject to Form 114 reporting.

This month, pursuant to a recent I.R.S. webinar, an I.R.S. official stated that Bitcoins are not required to be reported on this year’s Form 114. However, the official noted that the issue is under scrutiny, and caveated that the view could be changed in the future.

Notwithstanding the official’s comments, whether Bitcoin is a reportable asset will depend on the nature and manner it is held.

F.B.A.R. Assessment and Collections Processes: A Primer

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With the June 30th deadline fast approaching and the recent cases addressing F.B.A.R. penalties, we thought it would be useful to provide a primer on F.B.A.R. assessment and collections processes.


In general, a U.S. person having a financial interest in, or signature authority over, foreign financial accounts must file an F.B.A.R. if the value of the foreign financial accounts, taken in the aggregate and at any time during the calendar year, exceeds $10,000.

The F.B.A.R. must be filed electronically by June 30 of the calendar year following the year to be reported. No extension of time to file is available for F.B.A.R. purposes.

Failure to file this form, or filing a delinquent form, may result in significant civil and/or criminal penalties:

  • A non-willful violation of the F.B.A.R. filing obligation can lead to a maximum penalty of $10,000. If reasonable cause can be shown and the balance in the account is properly reported, the penalty can be waived.
  • In the case of a willful violation of the filing obligation, the maximum penalty imposed is the greater of $100,000 or 50% of the balance in the account in the year of the violation.